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What is Linux? – The official definition of the Linux Foundation

Kernel is computer software that can be considered the "core" of the operating system, be it Linux, Windows, macOS or any other. From a technical point of view, it is one of, if not "o", the most important component of the operating system, from the end user point of view (desktop, smartphone, etc.), the interface with the user is more relevant.

On most systems the Kernel is one of the first programs to load at boot, it usually works with the rest of the boot, as well as working with input and output requests, translating them into instructions that the CPU will interpret. The kernel works with peripherals (keyboards, mouse, monitors, printers, sound etc.), as well as memory.

In general lines, Kernel the software that connects your computer or device hardware with the rest of the software. he who creates the "midfield" between his player and your sound card, and the result of this interaction will allow you to listen to your favorite songs.

Started in 1991, Linux is the dominant operating system in the world. Launched by Linus Torvalds, Linux is a prime example of the innovation of how a project can be carried. Linux also represents Linus' desire for an operating system that he could run on his personal computer, eventually the whole world became aware of it and everyone from hardware companies to emerging technology providers found themselves participating in the development of Linux and Linux. building solutions to run on an open operating system.

Between 2005 and 2015, more than 11,000 individual developers and nearly 1,200 different companies contributed to the Linux Kernel, which has become a common shared resource, developed on a large scale by companies that are otherwise fierce competitors in their respective segments. industrial

Linux releases are regular, every two to three months, stable updates are offered to users, adding important new features, improved support for recurring devices, and performance improvements. The rate of change in the kernel has been historically high and continues to rise, with over 10,000 patches in each new kernel version. Each of these releases contains the work of over 1,400 developers representing over 200 corporations, including Google, Microsoft, Red Hat, Lenovo, Linaro, IBM, Intel, AMD, and many, many others.

What Linux? – Technical Definition

Just like Windows or macOS, Linux is an operating system. An operating system is software that manages all hardware resources associated with your desktop or notebook, as well as your mobile devices. Simply put, the operating system manages the communication between your software and your hardware and serves as a platform for the applications you run. Without the operating system (also referred to as OS, or English OS), the rest of the software could not work the way we know it.

A "Linux operating system" spans a number of sectors:

Bootloader: The software that manages the boot process of your computer. For most users, it is recognized as a simple splash screen with some logo or animation that eventually ends and takes you to your desktop or login screen. This Debian Page shows us a wide range of bootloaders available for Linux. The most popular is GRUB, however, it is commonly used in desktop / server distros, and on newer machines the kernel itself can manage the boot. without the need for another bootloader. There is also a project called "Das U-Boot"Open Source is responsible for booting embedded cards like Raspberry Pi. Android usually has a version modified by Bootloader manufacturers that gives you access to specific features of each device. The Android bootloader can read from device storage the images boot.img and recovery.img which contain compressed versions of the Linux kernel, where they are loaded directly into Smartphones / Tablets RAM, etc. Here there is one slide interesting about booting Android.

Kernel: This is the part of the whole we actually call "Linux." The kernel is the core of the system and manages the CPU, memory, peripherals, etc., as we commented earlier in the text. The kernel can be considered the lowest level of the operating system, the basis of everything.

Daemons: These are background services (printing, sound, scheduling, etc.) that start during boot, or after logging into the desktop. To better understand what and how it works Check out this other blog article. The shell: You have probably heard of the Linux terminal. Simply put, this is the Shell. In a more technical term, Shell is the outer layer of the kernel, however, the term is also used in systems Unix where text mode programs can be used as a means of interaction as a user interface to operate direct kernel access services. On Linux you can also use the shell to change higher layer functions of the operating system, such as software handling and task automation. The first Shell Unix was created by Ken Thompson, One of the most important minds in the computer world next to Dennis Ritchie. In general distros you will find Bash, coming from GNU, as the Shell command interpreter, however, it is not the only one and Linux itself has its own, so theoretically it is not necessary to use another one. See information about Busybox / ToyBox here, besides them we have some extremely dear to professionals like ZSH, that in some cases can be even safer than Bash himself, fish, IPython, KornShell, etc. Graphic Server: This is the subsystem that shows the graphics on your monitor, which shows the images. It commonly referred to in the Linux world as "X", "X Server" or "X.org". There are others under development, such as Mir, Wayland and Freon, created by Google for Chromebooks, among other less popular. Desktop Enviroment (DE): This is the "puzzle" part of systems using Linux that end users usually interact with. There are many desktop environments to choose from in the world. Linux, as GNOME, Cinnamon, KDE, Enlightment, XFCE, LXDE, Budgie, Deepin Desktop Enviroment, among others. Each Enviroment Desktop includes its own applications designed to integrate with the rest of the interface, such as file managers, configuration tools, etc.

Applications: Although there are desktop enviroments that offer virtually complete solutions for all types of tools, they can still leave something missing, and applications come in. Like Windows and macOS, Linux offers thousands of high quality software that can be easily found and installed. Modern Linux districts, and focused on home use especially, already include tools for installing third-party software with a few clicks. These are the so-called "Application Centers", which work like AppStore or Google Play.

Once the layers are defined, Linux is currently the platform that bundles and underpins all these projects. which are developed community often, but also independently.

Linux the only common point of all calls "Linux distributions", which are operating systems that use the Linux kernel as a basis for the development of their projects, bringing together software from all developers, with varied licenses. By itself Linux is a kernel which can also already be considered a standalone operating system, as it already has its own bootloader, daemons and an interaction terminal itself. Everything that goes above that to give Linux a purpose is what makes up what we call a "Linux distribution", or simply a "distro".

Speaking of Linux distributions …

simpler than it sounds, A Linux distribution is an operating system that uses the Linux kernel, as simple as that. Whatever it is and for what purpose it is.

Starting from a Linux kernel base and adding things that don't come in by default, or taking the kernel and dismounting it completely using only the components that matter, doesn't make it less Linux, makes it a modified Linux. That's exactly what virtually all so-called Linux distributions do, virtually none use the "pure" Linux kernel available from Kernel.org. Making an analogy that ignores philosophy and considers biology: Just as if you, who are made up of countless atoms, you disintegrate and become cosmic dust again, would technically remain you, except in another way, so is Linux.

Linux has a huge number of different versions, from versions for novice users to hard users, from wristwatches to their cell phones, from washing machines to refrigerators, from milking machines to robots on Mars, to Linux for all tastes!

Each of these versions is called a Linux distribution (or distro). For versions designed to run on the desktop, we have some famous ones. The website Linux cites as an example:

– Ubuntu

– Linux Mint

– Arch Linux

– deepin

– Fedora

– Debian

– openSUSE

(Parentheses in the subject)

It's a remark here, running a little off the agenda. Many people still criticize Deepin for the simple fact that its origin is Chinese, this subject has already been debated on the channel in two videos you can see. on here and on here. But Kernel.org mirror Deepin and the Linux Foundation (which Deepin developer Wuhan Technology is a part of) now names it as one of the good distros for desktop use. This definitely does not exempt them from anything, but a great indication of confidence.

Resuming …

Each distribution may have a different target audience and purpose, there are often distributions (or projects) that try to create system versions for different purposes. Ubuntu for Desktop, Ubuntu Server, Ubuntu Snappy, etc., are good examples of this.

In short, for something to be a "distro Linux" it simply needs to use the Linux kernel.

Linus Torlvalds – The Mind Behind Linux

In your Linux research you must have inevitably heard of Linus Torvalds. He had already been mentioned elsewhere in this same text. He is the original creator of Linux and is today one of the main maintainers. Not a person of many words and rarely gives interviews, so enjoy the "show" in a It's rare TED Talks that our team subtitled in Portuguese for you. Linus Torlvads Interview Ted Talks PTBR

Although Torvalds is recognized worldwide as "the mind behind Linux", he is not alone in doing this hard work. The Linux Foundation shows us who are the people who currently stand with Linus Torvalds in this work.

Linux Leading Developers Mentioning Chris Mason, Dan Williams and Greg Kroah-Hartman is interesting because many people wonder what would happen to Linux if Linus Torvalds retires or dies, the answer that the Linux Foundation is just for that and these are some of the people who could take office. We talk more about this morbid subject in this other blog post here.

What about Tux?

The Linux Mascot

Quick Conclusions and Myths

– What Linux?

R: A platform or operating system (kernel and satellite tools that may or may not be used, depending on the project), creating prominence for the kernel.

– Android Linux?

– Linux or GNU / Linux?

R: It is an old war and hardly anyone who has decided to change his mind. The truth is that each one is so much so that they are represented by different institutions and both live independently.

When referring to "Linux" you mean any application, system or platform running the Linux kernel (using GNU tools or not), use the term GNU / Linux to refer to GNU tools that are included in some common desktop distributions such as GRUB, Bash, GCC, among others, which in my view (personal opinion now), elucidate one initiative (which is important but not the only one) to the detriment of equally important ones. A distro like Manjaro KDE for example is made up of much more than just "Linux and GNU tools", there we have KDE, QT, X.org, Filesystems and many other software that make up the operating system you use that comes from. from other developers, where together form the entire distribution, following the same logic, wouldn't it be fair to use all contributors in the name?

Better to call s "Manjaro" itself, than the result of this specific software bundle, is the name of the operating system, one of the many Linux distros that also uses GNU tools. One of the definitions I've heard, which is called "GNU / Linux" is also a way of bringing the GNU project to the surface, trying to endorse the idea of ​​Free Software, which is laudable, but in my view not consistent. A real GNU / Linux system for me would be an operating system launched by the GNU project that used Linux as a kernel. We don't have a "GNU / Linux Foundation", nor a "qt / KDE / GNU / X / Mesa / Intel / Linux / Minix / Unix Foundation", we have a GNU foundation, a Linux foundation and so on, after all, just things different and not always related. And even when they are, the GNU tools are under the same Linux base as all the other tools that make up the operating system are, in our example, KDE Plasma, the file system, KApps, software managers, the graphics server. , Among other things.

– Linux (or Linux Foundation) a company?

R: No! A lot of people get confused about this and think that "Linux"an operating system that competes directly with Windows and macOS in the market through a company, so "if Linux wants to grab a share of the market … bl, bl, bl"You must have heard that. To get it over with, check out the video "What you still don't understand about 'Linux'"

If you prefer to consume the content of this video in text mode, please read in this article here from the blog. Now when you think of Linux, don't think of a crowded office building where a lot of people work on developing Linux.

Some Linux distros are created this way (but not just this way), especially those that (rightly) have a "traditional" company behind them, such as Ubuntu (Canonical) and Red Hat EL (Red Hat), Android (Google) and others. .

Linux can be developed by a number of companies, but in the public domain, anyone (literally) can use Linux for their projects, you don't necessarily have to be a direct contributor to Linux to use Linux, however, the simple fact that You use Linux will eventually generate feedback and eventually code that will help improve Linux in future versions.

Microsoft could create a version of Linux for Desktop if it wanted to, Apple could create a Linux system for the iPhone if it wanted too and so on. The only thing copyrighted by the name is Linux, which belongs to Linus Torlvalds for legal reasons.

– What is the function of the "Linux Foundation"?

R: The Linux Foundation is dedicated to building sustainable ecosystems around open source projects to accelerate technology development and commercial adoption. Founded in 2000, the Linux Foundation provides unmatched support for open source communities through financial and intellectual resources, infrastructure, services, events and training. Working together, the Linux Foundation and its projects form the most ambitious and successful investment in creating shared technology, More than Linux "The Linux Foundation" has gained its experience and expertise by supporting the Linux community to help establish, build and support some of the most critical open source technologies.

His work today extends far beyond Linux, promoting innovation across all layers of the software stack. The Linux Foundation organizes projects that cover enterprise IT, embedded systems, consumer electronics, cloud, networking and more. Some of these high-speed projects that are helping to redefine what is possible include Hyperledger for interindustrial block chain technologies; Automotive Grade Linux, the open source platform for automotive applications; the Open Network Automation Platform (ONAP) project for real-time, policy-driven software automation of virtual network functions; and Kubernetes, the Cloud Native Computing Foundation project for orchestrating production continents.

Conclusion of the article All information contained in this article not only opinionated, they are factual and taken from reliable sources and have been referenced in the links throughout the text, in addition you can consult your own Linux Foundation website to validate informations. The only opinion information was recorded in italics in the "Linux or GNU / Linux" session.

I sincerely hope that the hours I spent researching and organizing this content are really useful for you! πŸ™‚

See you next time!_____________________________________________________________________________