It is said that there are four essential legal areas to build a foundation of trust in e-commerce: electronic transactions (e-transaction), cybercrime, consumer protection, as well as data protection and privacy. In this sense, according to the survey, globally, 81% of the countries have legislation for e-transaction, with Europe standing out with 98% share, followed by the Americas with 91%, with the lowest record in Africa. , with 61%.
With regard to cybercrime, 79% of countries have the right legislation, with Europe leading, with 89% and Africa on the opposite side, with 72%. On the protection of online consumers, the global share is 56%, with an adoption rate of 74% in Europe, 72% in the Americas and 46% in Africa. Regarding data protection and privacy legislation, 66% of countries have regulations, with Europe registering 96%, the Americas having 69%, in Asia and the Pacific 57% and 50% in Africa.
UNCTAD says that creating laws is not enough. Countries must strengthen action, and many developed countries often have insufficient resources to do so. The increase in cybercrime and the lack of means to deal with it, is a challenge for security agencies, especially across borders. In this regard, UNCTAD recommends that when countries adopt new cyberspace laws, they should opt for the most neutral technology possible, to avoid the need for constant reviews and to ensure compatibility between different legal systems.
The study was carried out in February 2020, involving more than 60 participating countries. UNCTAD provided an interactive map that shows which of the four areas referred to have been introduced into legislation. In the case of Portugal, the four points offer the respective legislation.