A good option in this case would be Linux Mint, although I recommend it to anyone just starting out if you don't mind a slightly bigger paradigm shift Ubuntu is the best option, all Mint has to have in Ubuntu is also vice versa, we can say that only systems are brothers.
Assuming that you are going to use Ubuntu (if I can do it you can do it too) let's start to sort out the problems once in a while.
After downloading the system, time to install. It's always important to back up your current system and save your most important data in a safe place so you can restore it later, after downloading the system ISO the way you learned it from the video above, it's time to record it. there on a DVD or using a flash drive, to help illustrate this situation, see the video below where I showed how to install Ubuntu via a flash drive.
The installation of Ubuntu is very simple and intuitive but as with an always better video, so check out the installation of Ubuntu step by step so you have no doubt.
Ubuntu successfully installed!
Now that you already have a brand new operating system that we are going to start "the jokes", so far the article has boiled down to showing some essential things for those looking to migrate, now let's present some solutions for those starting out, a huge list of programs and features for the system.
After you get used to "the internet side that uses Linux" you will come across several articles on "What to do after installing Ubuntu" and we have ours too.
Just like in Windows there are a number of things you need to do to make the system more functional, in fact just one thing, install codecs for playing multimedia files, so you get all the basics like internet browsing, video, songs etc, of course there are other things you can do to make using Ubuntu more comfortable and that's what we show here, not "What to do after installing Ubuntu! "
Getting used to the new system
The most normal thing in the world to get lost in a new system, but to understand how it works something essential, Ubuntu has a feature that is often unknown by users that the application helps.
In Ubuntu to open a program you must go to the first sidebar icon where the program icons are, there you can search for the help application by typing the word "help", click it and you will see a screen like this:
In this program you will find useful information about the system, from things nomenclature to tips on how to set up the system, graphical environment shortcuts etc, explore all the items carefully and be sure to check it in case you are in doubt, it is yours. Ubuntu manual on Ubuntu.
How to do basic Windows things on Ubuntu
Now I will list some things I remember that I had problems when I first used Linux, names of things, where is what, etc.
Something as simple as opening folders can be tricky if you don't know where to go, in Windows we have "Windows Explorer", a program that is used to browse the files on your computer, through which you go to the folders containing your music. favorites, your pictures, etc.
In Ubuntu this program responsible for browsing folders and files is called Nautilus, and it works exactly the same way, copying and pasting, opening folders with two clicks and even having a few more functions, like opening tabbed folders just like in a web browser, believe me, once you get used to those tabs you'll never want a file manager that can't do that.
Alt + Ctrl + Del and Task Manager
One of the things I was used to in Windows was also the Task Manager where you can see all the processes on your computer, you get to it by pressing a very popular Windows keystroke, when the situation hits, Alt + Ctrl + Del .
In Ubuntu we have a similar program, it is called "System Monitor" and you probably won't use it to finish tasks but to check computer resources like disk space, memory used, processor, such things.
In the Central tab you can see the resources used by the machine, such as number of preocessor cores, amount of memory, network traffic.
In the Open of "File Systems" you can see how full your hard drive or partition is, in the graph, the closer to 100% fuller your hard drive is.
In the first tab you can see all the processes running on the system and you can even finish them if you want, remember that the "System Monitor" can be found in your Ubuntu Menu.
"What if a program crashes like it does?"
No one is free of crashes, on Linux it is harder this will happen but it is not impossible, if a program crashes you can open the System Monitor and finalize his process by l but i particularly like the XKILL, open the terminal from the Ubuntu menu (the terminal is a program for you to give Linux commands via text) and type "xkill"without quotes, your mouse will become a killer and will close any programs you click.
Is there a "Run" menu like the one that pops up when I hit "Windows + R"?
This was a doubt I had too and yes, there is, instead of pressing the Windows key, which here called "Super Key" and R, you must press ALT + F2 and enter the command you want, obviously the commands that Ubuntu accepts are different from those of Windows.
There are a number of shortcuts to use in Ubuntu, if you hold down SUPER key for 3 seconds you will see the screen below with all Unity shortcuts (which is the name of Ubuntu's graphical interface).
How to format a flash drive in Ubuntu
As ridiculous as it may sound, I already had this question, and this procedure, although simple, is a little more complicated than it could be, check out the video below produced by Diolinux:
How to set screen resolution
This was another question I had, in Windows to change the screen resolution was just right-clicking on the desktop and clicking on the resolution option, a simple and easy shortcut, in Ubuntu it's not complicated either, opening In the menu just type "Monitors" or "Screen" and you will have access to a menu of monitor settings, including resolution:
How to configure network on Ubuntu, IP? Information about the network?
This part is for slightly more advanced users, but you may still need to mess with your network for some reason.
Note that many network commands are similar on Linux and Windows, such as the command ping, To configure the network in Ubuntu you have to click on the icon in the top bar on the desktop, if you are connected via cable it looks like two arrows in opposite directions vertically, if it is Wi-Fi, symbol will be the traditional Wifi
By clicking on this icon you will have access to various information, such as available Wi-Fi networks (they will only appear if you have hardware to access wireless networks), to connect to one simply choose the one you want, if it have a password if a window opens allowing you to enter the password.
In this same place you will also find the options to connect / disconnect from the networks, whether wired or wireless, if you click on "Info", you will be able to see your network status, IP address, subnet mask, DNS, etc, as in the image below:
Note that getting this information in Ubuntu is simpler than in Windows, if you want to do this via terminal just type: ifconfig
To edit network connections simply click on the "Edit" option just below the "Information" option, this option can be found in the Ubuntu Settings menu or by searching for "Network" in the System Main Menu.
To edit a connection just choose which one you want and click edit on the side, then open a window where you can configure IP, DNS and other advanced network settings manually.
How to access a networked Windows server on Linux?
In Ubuntu you will do this using Nautilus (remember it, the file browser?), Open it and you will see that on the left side there is an option called "Connect to server".
Clicking on it will open this small window where you can enter the address of the server you want to access, but don't forget to type smb: // Because Ubuntu uses an application called SAMBA to connect to Windows networks, if you notice the picture above also on the left, just above "Connect to Server" there is an option to browse the network as you normally do in Windows.
Control Panel in Ubuntu?
If you are looking for a place that concentrates all system information and configuration options like Windows knows that this also exists in Ubuntu, the equivalent of the Windows control panel in Ubuntu is called Unity Control Center and you can access it. by clicking the gear cone in the upper right corner and clicking "System Settings …" or look for the app of the same name in the menu.
Here you will find everything there are settings in the system, I will not detail each option very much because I believe they are intuitive, create users, modify the sound, set the date and time, configure your mouse and other options are very simple to use. adjust. Explore at will and forget about the Help app I commented on earlier.
Cad my Disc C: /?
One of the biggest doubts of users who are very used to Windows and migrate to Linux is that, in Windows the HD partitions are represented by letters, and disk calls C, D, E, F, as well as devices like CD / DVD and Disk C where the main operating system folders are stored.
In Ubuntu these little letters do not exist, Linux uses a different naming for parties and the organization of system files, you may think this is strange but in fact the only exception is Windows, all other operating systems follow a similar model. Ubuntu, whether Mac OSX, BSD, or Android.
To further clarify this issue I recommend that you read the article we publish here explaining what each directory is for inside the system root, which would be equivalent to Windows Disk C.
How to install programs on Ubuntu
Ubuntu has the Program Center An application that reenacts major programs for you to install with just one click, select the programs and click install, this mechanism is very similar to Google Play on Android or the App Store on Macs, such a tool was so successful that even Windows 8 implemented similar functionality to the Windows Store.
To install programs for it just search for the application you want by typing its name or the function you want, for example: "Audacity" or "Audio Editor", click on the application you want, click the "Install" button , enter your user password in the window that opens, confirm and wait for the installation as soon as the application is finished it will be available in the system menu.
Dude, cad my EXE?
Well, damn custom to install everything by clicking next, next, next, next …, despite the problems that sometimes bring, we can say that Windows software packages, called .EXE are very practical, in Ubuntu you will have It's a similar feature, but instead of calling EXE the packages are called DEB, .deb packages can be installed on Ubuntu by double clicking like you did on Windows, they open with Program Center and then you install like any other, click At the install button, enter the password, confirm, wait for the installation and open the application from the menu.
PPA is a feature that Ubuntu has for installing a program that is either not in official repositories or not available via DEB for users.
Through PPAs you can gain access to programs that are still being developed, access to programs that have not yet been screened by Canonical (the developer of Ubuntu); They work just like any other system repository.
Programs in Program Center are on servers, just like any other software on the internet, this server has an address like ARCHIVE.UBUNTU Since it is the repository where most packages are, what you do when you add a PPA is just to add one more source where Ubuntu can look for programs, using PPA has the advantage of always having the programs updated as quickly as possible.
You will find several tips on how to install various programs on Ubuntu on the internet using PPA, programs installed in this way usually use the terminal where you normally copy and paste 3 commands, one for adding a PPA, one for updating the list of available repositories and the Last to install the program itself, at this time many users run because they don't want to type commands and that's why it's good to warn everyone that you can do it graphically, We teach you this step-by-step in this article, so just go through and take a read, there is also a program called Y-PPA Manager to make it even easier.
We are now halfway through our tutorial, at this point we will present the best solutions in the Linux world for known programs in the Windows world.
This is one of the most important points, after all it is complicated to migrate from operating system and "open" the programs you use for years, most of the time changes are not as drastic as some suggest, and most often change to Best.
Let us now know some programs that replace functionality in their counterparts in Windows, often even surpass.
Microsoft Office can be replaced by Libre Office
Who has never used Word, Excel and Power Point in fact? These programs are rooted in the culture of personal computer use.
On Ubuntu you'll find it installed by default on the system, Libre Office is a complete word processor suite (Writer), which is equivalent to Word, a spreadsheet application (Calc) that is equivalent to Excel, a Power Point equivalent presentation program. (Impress), a database application called Base, which is equivalent to Access, is also Math, which is an application for developing mathematical equations; And we also have Draw, an application for vector drawings and simple drawings that can open up to Corel Draw formats, all for free!
Note that if you really need to use Microsoft Office on Ubuntu, as we showed in this tutorialBut the recommendation is to have an open mind and embrace change.
To replace Adobe Photoshop we have GIMP
In this image editing segment there is more than one program capable of meeting your needs, like Krita and Pinta, but by far the best for me is the GIMP (GNU Image Manipulator Program).
I use GIMP practically every day because of the blog and the channel and I have nothing to complain about it and look I'm an Adobe Photoshop instructor and I find GIMP much more practical than him, especially on Ubuntu because of the HUD function of system.
With it you can manipulate layers, color selection tools like Photoshop's "Magic Wand" are present, various brushes and filters too, everything you find in Photoshop you can find in GIMP, I venture to say until you Knowing how to use Photoshop to learn how to use GIMP is a mere matter of time until you learn the names of menus and tools, the GIMP interface is very malevel and it supports many themes, so in the image editing part you won't get in hand.
GIMP is also free and is in the Ubuntu Program Center.
Inkscape Opts Corel Draw and Adobe Illustrator
When it comes to vector drawings we also have a great option, apart from Draw that comes with Libre Office on Ubuntu you may need a more complete and complex program, in this case Inkscape is the best choice.
If you have already used Corel Draw you will not feel much different, the program even has tools with similar icons to Corel, perhaps one of the differences in appearance is that the color palette is at the bottom by default, but its functionality is the same. For example, a left mouse button click on a color adds it to the object, the right button applies the outline to the object with the selected color.
O Inkscape It's another free program you find in the Ubuntu Program Center.
Windows Movie Maker Can Be Replaced by OpenShot
Anyone who likes to do basic video editing will love OpenShot very much, it is free like Windows Movie Maker but has many more features than the Microsoft editor, has support for audio and video tracks, video effects and also small builds. animations.
If you want to edit some home videos, making a DVD with photos of a trip OpenShot will be perfect.
Remember that it is in the Ubuntu Program Center and free as all we have commented so far.
Kdenlive a substitute for Sony Vegas and Adobe Premiere
When it comes to a slightly heavier, semi-professional and professional video edition, Kdenlive the King has no one, he's the best free video editor in the world among all platforms.
It is what I use to edit all the videos of the Diolinux channel, it has so many features that it would be complicated to list them all here but some of them are:
– Video Overlay
– Audio and Video Filters
– Color Treatment
– Rendering with over 20 different profiles among many other things.
It is ideal for those who have a YouTube channel or for short films for example if you want to edit a movie professionally like Hollywood do you can use the Lightworks in its Linux version, the movie "The Wolves of Wallstreet" was edited with him.
Rest assured you don't have Internet Explorer as your default browser here, the default Ubuntu is Firefox, which is a great browser, but you can choose from many others, including Google Chrome and Opera.
You can download Google Chrome and Opera from their developer sites, there is even on Ubuntu Program Center a software called Chromium that is similar, not to say the same as Google Chrome, and there you also find a number of other browsers.
Notepad in Ubuntu is called "Text Editor" or Gedit
It may seem strange but I had problems even with that when I was migrating, I was so used to the notepad that I used to use the Windows notepad that came with Wine, newbie, I know …
This application already comes with Ubuntu and you can find it in the system menu, there are several others you can install but if you want such a simple and useful program when Notepad Gedit is a great option.
Brasero and K3B won't let you miss Nero
Nero is one of the most famous programs when it comes to burning CD / DVD / BLR on Windows, but it is paid and even has Linux version if you want to use it, but Ubuntu already comes with a program called Brasero in its default installation.
Actually Ubuntu itself can make recordings without having to open such a program, you just have to put an empty media and copy the data into it, but if you want a program with the same Nero features as making disk copies, making VCDs or SVCDs, record audio or data Brasero is there for that.
If you want more control over recording consider using K3B which is in the Program Center, it is a more advanced program and has no interface as intuitive as Brasero but it is worth testing.
Substitute for Dreamweaver on Ubuntu?
Those who venture into Web programming, especially those who have done some webdesigner cramming, have learned to do everything based on Dreamweaver, especially because of the ease that WYSIWIG provides, it lets you do things graphically and the program do the work. to generate the code for you.
O BlueGriffon The best alternative to Adobe Dreamweaver is if you are looking for a code editor that has this "What You See Is What You Get" functionality. But if you really want to use Dreamweaver know that it runs well for Wine and PlayonLinux, however, let me give you some advice, don't get stuck in programs, be a competent professional who doesn't depend on these facilities to produce if you want Following this profession, if you are a "sparse programmer," as I usually refer to myself, goes deep into BlueGriffon, another one who really likes it. Sublime Text 3.
ManyCam for Ubuntu? Know the Cheese
These programs to "play" with WebCam by putting effects like bubbles, snow, fire are a lot of fun, one of the most famous for Windows is ManyCam but there are others, including online and also running on Linux, WebCam Toy.
Cheese is an application that also comes with Ubuntu and allows you to take photos and record videos using its WebCam, it has those cool effects for you to enjoy, like vertigo, snow, fire, water, surely you will not miss no windows programs and there are still more options in the Ubuntu Program Center.
This is a very important point without doubt, after all games are for many users the most important thing, recently Valve launched its Steam platform for Linux and with it came more than 600 games and that number has only grown.
Games like DOTA 2, Team Fortress 2, Metro Last Light, The Witcher 2, Eurotruck Simulator, Minecraft among many, many others.
There are thousands of programs and thousands of alternatives.
No matter what your need you will find alternatives in the free world, as a special recommendation I would like to indicate this link From the Ubuntu Brasil Wiki, in it you will find a huge list of equivalent programs, now you just have to dedicate yourself and really want to migrate.
A paradise of emulators
There is no program I want!
Even with the vast library of software that Linux has, you may need "that" specific and irreplaceable program (ser?), In which case you can use a tool called Wine and its PlayonLinux utility, with them you'll be able to run games and Windows programs on Linux, so you can better understand how the program works we have prepared a video with everything you need to know to use some Windows programs on Linux.
Today I decided to miss this classic:
Where to find help
Keep in mind that it is only natural that you have questions about Linux, questions about Ubuntu, so let's give you some tips on where you can go to find help, there are several places but what I see most nowadays are communities on Facebook and not Google Plus, As our group, you can come in and take your questions. There are also frums, each distribution usually keeps its own, in the case of Ubuntu we have the Ubuntu Frum Br, O Long live Linux (for any distro not just Ubuntu) and many others, remember to always search Google first when a question or need occurs, it is very likely that your question has already been answered, most likely indeed!
And with this we close this article, I hope that most of your doubts have been resolved and that you are feeling more comfortable doing this system migration, if you have any questions ask, there are several people you are willing to help.
WELCOME TO LINUX! COUNT ON US! =)