NASA has revealed its action plans to bring samples of Mars to Earth, as part of the Mars 2020 mission. They are ambitious plans, drawn up for the next decade, supported by partners such as the European Space Agency. Taking samples from Mars and bringing them to Earth is a historic undertaking that kicks off with the launch of the NASA Mars 2020 program rover, the agency says in its blog, supported by the explanatory video that you can see below.
The two space agencies will collaborate in the various phases of the mission, which include developing the lander, the collection rover, an ascending vehicle to launch the deposit of samples into the Martian orbit, as well as the spaceship that will return Earth with the precious cargo .
Regarding the rover, it has a drill at the end of the robotic arm. This will drill the soil and obtain the samples for tubes that are stored inside the rover. After collecting a set of samples, the rover drops them on the surface for collection. This is where the lander comes in, the vehicle that has elements: the Sample Fetch Rover and the Sample Transfer Arm to transfer the samples to a rocket and the Mars Ascent Vehicle, used to transport the samples from the planet to space.
The final phase will be done in space. In 2026, the Orbiter will be launched from Earth towards Mars, which reaches its destination and waits for the rocket with the sample load. The container is separated from the rocket and swallowed by the Orbiter, ejecting it from the other end, projecting it towards Earth, where it is expected to arrive in 2031.